### Normal Stress

** Normal stress** is simply the force per unit area and is
denoted by the Greek letter (sigma).

The ** stress **in a member of
cross-sectional area "A" subjected to an axial load (Force) is given from the following equation:

If ** normal stress** is positive, it is called a "

**" (i.e. it causes elongation in the member), and if it is negative, it is called a "**

*tensile stress***" (i.e. it causes reduction in the length of the member)**

*compressive stress*### Shear Stress

** Shear stress** can be either single or doubled.

is given from the following equation:*Single shear stress*is given from the following equation:*Double shear stress*

### Bearing Stress

Bolts, pins, and rivets create stresses in the members they connect,
along the bearing surface, or surface of contact.

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